Battle for Newstead Abbey 4 by Alex Earle
Images of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, 1638 - 1651.
Various Hussar Attilas:
- Attila eines Obergefreiten des Husaren-Regiments von Schill Nr. 4, VI. Armeekorps
- Pelisse für Mannschaften des Leib-Garde-Husaren-Regiments, Gardekorps
- Attila eines Obergefreiten des Husaren-Regiments von Zieten Nr. 3, III. Armeekorps
- Parade-Attila eines Offiziers des Husaren-Regiments Nr. 6 oder 10
- Paradeattila eines Leutnants der Husaren-Regimenter 12, 13 oder 16
Faces of war
#4 Roza Shanina
Roza Georgiyevna Shanina was born on 3 April 1924 in the Russian village of Yedma (Arkhangelsk Oblast) to Anna Alexeyevna Shanina, a kolkhoz milkmaid, and Georgiy (Yegor) Mikhailovich Shanin, a logger who had been disabled by a wound received during World War I.
Roza was reportedly named after the Marxist revolutionary Rosa Luxemburg and had six siblings: one sister Yuliya and five brothers: Mikhail, Fyodor, Sergei, Pavel and Marat. The Shanins also raised three orphans.
After finishing four classes of elementary school in Yedma, Shanina continued her education in the village of Bereznik.
At the age of fourteen, Shanina, against her parents’ wishes, walked 200 kilometres across the taiga to the rail station and travelled to Arkhangelsk to study at the college there.
In 1938, Shanina became a member of the Soviet youth movement Komsomol. Shanina received little financial support from home and on 11 September 1941, she took a job in kindergarten No. 2 (lately known as Beryozka) in Arkhangelsk, with which she was offered a free apartment. She studied in the evenings and worked in the kindergarten during the daytime. Shanina graduated from college in the 1941–42 academic year, when the Soviet Union was in the grip of World War II.
Shanina’s two elder brothers had volunteered for the military. In December 1941, a death notification was received for her 19-year-old brother Mikhail, who had died during the Siege of Leningrad. In response, Shanina went to the military commissariat to ask for permission to serve.
On 22 June 1943, while still living in the dormitory, Shanina was accepted into the Vsevobuch program for universal military training.
After Shanina’s several applications, the military commissariat finally allowed her to enrol in the Central Female Sniper Academy, where she met Aleksandra “Sasha” Yekimova and Kaleriya “Kalya” Petrova, who became her closest friends.
On 2 April 1944 joined the 184th Rifle Division, where a separate female sniper platoon had been formed. Shanina was appointed a commander of that platoon. Three days later, southeast of Vitebsk, Shanina killed her first German soldier.
For her actions in the battle for the village of Kozyi Gory (Smolensk Oblast), Shanina was awarded her first military distinction, the Order of Glory 3rd Class on 17 April 1944.
By May 1944, her sniper tally increased to 17 confirmed enemy kills.
When Operation Bagration commenced in the Vitebsk region on 22 June 1944, it was decided that female snipers would be withdrawn. They voluntarily continued to support the advancing infantry anyway, and despite the Soviet policy of sparing snipers, Shanina asked to be sent to the front line. Although her request was refused, she went anyway. Shanina was later sanctioned for going to the front line without permission, but did not face a court martial.
Shanina and her sisters-in-arms took part in the struggle for Vilnius, which had been under German occupation since 24 June 1941.
During the fights in Eastern Prussia, Shanina was hit by a bullet in the shoulder on 12 December 1944.
On 27 January Shanina was severely injured while shielding a wounded artillery officer. She was found by two soldiers disemboweled, with her chest torn open by a shell fragment. Despite attempts to save her, Shanina died the following day.
Roza Shanina’s diary and several letters were published after her death. She was credited with fifty-nine confirmed kills, and recieved three different orders during her lifetime (Orders of Glory 3rd and 2nd Class, Medal for Courage) which makes her one of the most sucessful and most famous female snipers of World War Two.
The United States Army in Somalia, 1992-1994, US Army military history publication, 27 pages. Includes detailed events of Battle of Mogadishu.
“There was a place near an airport, Kowloon, when Hong Kong wasn’t China, but there had been a mistake, a long time ago, and that place, very small, many people, it still belonged to China. So there was no law there. An outlaw place. And more and more people crowded in; they built it up, higher. No rules, just building, just people living. Police wouldn’t go there. Drugs and whores and gambling. But people living, too. Factories, restaurants. A city. No laws.”
—William Gibson, Idoru
It was the most densely populated place on Earth for most of the 20th century, where a room cost the equivalent of US$6 per month in high rise buildings that belonged to no country. In this urban enclave, “a historical accident”, law had no place. Drug dealers, pimps and prostitutes lived and worked alongside kindergartens, and residents walked the narrow alleys with umbrellas to shield themselves from the endless, constant dripping of makeshift water pipes above….
Kowloon ‘Walled’ City lost its wall during the Second World War when Japan invaded and razed the walls for materials to expand the nearby airport. When Japan surrendered, claims of sovereignty over Kowloon finally came to a head between the Chinese and the British. Perhaps to avoid triggering yet another conflict in the wake of a world war, both countries wiped their hands of the burgeoning territory.
And then came the refugees, the squatters, the outlaws. The uncontrolled building of 300 interconnected towers crammed into a seven-acre plot of land had begun and by 1990, Kowloon was home to more than 50,000 inhabitants….
Despite earning its Cantonese nickname, “City of Darkness”, amazingly, many of Kowloon’s residents liked living there. And even with its lack of basic amenities such as sanitation, safety and even sunlight, it’s reported that many have fond memories of the friendly tight-knit community that was “poor but happy”.
“People who lived there were always loyal to each other. In the Walled City, the sunshine always followed the rain,” a former resident told the South China Morning Post….
Today all that remains of Kowloon is a bronze small-scale model of the labyrinth in the middle a public park where it once stood.
This isn’t to say places like Kowloon Walled City no longer exist in Hong Kong….